The Exodus of the Hebrews, Moses and the Pharaohs
The Date of the Exodus
Oahspe’s account of the Migration of the Faithists of Egypt at the time of the Arc of Bon can be placed in context with surviving historical accounts and recent archaeological discoveries to reveal corresponding details that affirm Oahspe’s account of the Exodus of the Hebrews.
Biblical scholars have long searched for evidence of the Israelites in Egypt and the miracles that accompanied the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt. Not least of all the Red Sea Crossing and its location.
Ancient Hebrew, pre-Chaldean pictorial script carved onto rock faces in various sites around the Sinai were found in the 19th century by archaeologists and explorers, indicating independent accounts of the crossing of the Red Sea by the Hebrews. These writings are far older than the account written in the Ezra bible.
Sinaitic Inscriptions in Wadee El-Mukattab, Sinai
Photographed in 1857 by Francis Frith (1822-1898)
BOOK TITLE: Sinai, Palestine, The Nile. ca. 1863
The following is a translation of the inscription:
wind blowing, the sea dividing into parts, they pass over"
"The Hebrews flee through the sea; the sea is turned into dry land."
"The waters permitted and dismissed to flow,
burst rushing unawares upon the astonished men,
congregated from quarters banded together to slay treacherously
being lifted up with pride."
"The leader divideth asunder the sea, its waves roaring.
The people enter, and pass through the midst of the waters."
"Moses causeth the people to haste like a fleet-winged she-ostrich crying aloud;
the cloud shining bright,
a mighty army propelled into the Red sea is gathered into one;
they go jumping and skipping.
Journeying through the open channel,
taking flight from the face of the enemy.
The surge of the sea is divided."
"The people flee, the tribes descend into the deep.
The people enter the waters.
The people enter and penetrate through the midst.
The people are filled with stupor and perturbation.
Jehovah is the keeper and companion."
"Their enemies weep for the dead, the virgins are wailing.
The sea flowing down overwhelmed them.
The waters were let loose to flow again."
The people depart fugitive.
A mighty army is submerged in the deep sea,
the only way of escape for the congregated people."
In 1978, archaeological evidence that suggests the actual location of the crossing of the sea by the Hebrews, as described in Oahspe and the Ezra bible, was found at a location along the Gulf of Aqaba, a channel of the Red Sea which runs between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Near the shore on the Egyptian side was an ancient fallen column, on the Saudi Arabia side was also an identical column, lying partly submerged in the water, inscribed with ancient script. What was found underwater on the Egyptian side were remains of chariots including wheels and axles, human and horse skeletal remains preserved by coral encrustations. The chariot wheel remains with their four, six and eight spokes were confirmed by Egyptian antiquities experts to date back to at least the time of Ahmose I––depictions of such chariot wheels are found in ancient Egyptian paintings and engravings of the 18th dynasty.
But chariots are known to have been used well before this by the Asiatics from whom the Egyptians appropriated them. It is obvious that the Middle Kingdom, being influenced by the Asiatics, as is evident in the presence of the Hyksos, would have certainly used the chariot before the time of Ahmose I.
Chariot Wheels found in the Red Sea (Gulf of Aqaba)
Chariot Wheel standing on end attached to axle Coral-encrusted chariot wheel with axle-hub in the centre
If this is the location of the Red Sea Crossing then it confirms elements of the account of the crossing as given in Oahspe and the Ezra bible. The undersea land-bridge where the chariot remains were found, is the only place where such a crossing of the deep channels of the Red Sea would have been possible.
retrieved 18 Mar, 08.
||There have been some "controversies" about the depth of the underwater landbridge that extends across the Gulf of Aqaba from the beach at Nuweiba -- and in May of 2000 a group from Australia and New Zealand went to the site and did extensive testing using Simrad CE32 Chart Plotter plus GPS to carry out depth soundings. It seems that the British Admiralty maps are inaccurate and unreliable -- our new tests matched the results of the Israeli Marine Geology Mapping & Tectonics Division..The Israelis report, "There IS a land bridge off Nuweiba" -- but we must remember that the Exodus happened over 3,400 years ago, and the underwater landbridge will have eroded and deteriorated over the years.....||
Satellite photograph of the Gulf of Aqaba. Nuweiba on the Egyptian side of the Red Sea.
Left: The Red Sea Crossing site is
located in the Gulf of Aqaba. There is only ONE PLACE along the
west located a natural underwater land-bridge that crossed coast of
the Gulf of Aqaba that is big enough to hold 1-2 million people and
that is the beach at Nuweiba which is large enough to clearly be seen from
space. Right: When Ron Wyatt went scuba diving
at this location, he located a natural underwater land-bridge that crossed the
gulf. He also found chariot wheels and human and
horse bones preserved by coral encrustations.
Left: The Red Sea Crossing site is located in the Gulf of Aqaba. There is only ONE PLACE along the west located a natural underwater land-bridge that crossed coast of the Gulf of Aqaba that is big enough to hold 1-2 million people and that is the beach at Nuweiba which is large enough to clearly be seen from space.
Right: When Ron Wyatt went scuba diving at this location, he located a natural underwater land-bridge that crossed the gulf. He also found chariot wheels and human and horse bones preserved by coral encrustations.
The firm date of the Arc of Bon given in Oahspe, provides a timeframe of reference by which other accounts can be measured. Oahspe places the time of the Arc of Bon at 3400 years before Kosmon. Subtracting 3400 years from the dawn of Kosmon, which was ca 1850 c.e., the date of the Arc of Bon in common era dating is ca 1550 b.c.e. This is the time when Moses began his mission resulting in the Exodus of the Faithists from Egypt some 4 years later. This places the date when the Faithists left Egypt at ca 1546 b.c.e.
Oahspe, Bk of the Arc of Bon,
the name of the place they reached when they crossed over (the sea)
was Shakelmarath; and they camped there many days.
30. From the time Moses began to put on foot the migration of Israel until he reached
Shakelmarath was four years two hundred and seven days.||
Although scholars disagree on the dates of the Exodus, those that recognize that the expulsion of the Hyksos in the reign of Ahmose I is synonymous with the Exodus of the Hebrews, find that Egyptologists assert this date to be circa 1550 b.c.e. which also concurs with the dates of the ancient Jewish Historian Josephus:
retrieved 30 Sept, 07.
||...the 1st century AD Jewish Historian, Flavius Josephus, using Manetho's 3rd century BCE History of Egypt to establish the antiquity of his race, identified the Hyksos expulsion with the Exodus. But Josephus vehemently attempted to REFUTE Manetho's notion that the Exodus was much later, under a Pharaoh called Ramesses.....||
Biblical scholars dating the Exodus according to the Ezra bible, calculate the date of the Exodus by counting the number of years before the foundation of Solomon’s temple. These calculations bring many of such scholars to the date of 1446 b.c.e., which is 100 years short of the actual date. 1446 b.c.e. is also disputed by various Biblical scholars: |1|
retrieved 20 Feb, 08.
||….In The Antiquity of the Jews (1830, 166; Book 8.3.1) Josephus says the exodus occurred 592 years before the Temple of Solomon was built which is about 960 BC. So the exodus, according to Josephus, was about 1552 BC….. Josephus says the exodus was 612 years before the temple. This difference is probably due to the counting of the years of the judges. This places the exodus at about the same time as the expulsion of the Hyksos……. I Kings 6:1 states that the exodus was 480 years before the Temple of Solomon was built, yet Josephus clearly states 592 years in his book The Antiquity of the Jews. The difference seems to be in the way the rule of the Judges was calculated. Josephus seems to include the oppressions as well as the judges, whereas the writer of Kings excludes the the rule of oppressors, as was customary at this time (Jackson and Lake 1979, 151). This amounts to about 111 years difference….||
1550 b.c.e. is confirmed as the date which the Migration of the Faithists, aka the Exodus of the Hebrews, occurred. This date is confirmed over and over again as being accurate in various supporting details which correspond between Oahspe and historical and archaeological contexts which are addressed in later parts of this series of The Exodus of the Hebrews, Moses and the Pharaohs.
|1| Biblical Archaeology:The Date of the Exodus According to Ancient Writers; Dr. Stephen C. Meyers; 2003; chapter 1, Ancient Writers.
All Oahspe references are from the Standard Edition Oahspe of 2007